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The two poles of the energy-saving lamp are ordinary tu […]
The two poles of the energy-saving lamp are ordinary tungsten wire. When the tungsten wire is heated, it can emit electrons. Applying a relatively high voltage on both sides of the lamp tube to form an electric field, these electrons will be accelerated in the lamp tube. The electron flow of a certain speed and energy. The lamp is evacuated and filled with mercury, which is what we call mercury.
1. When the lamp is heated and energized, the mercury evaporates from the liquid state and becomes gaseous. The free mercury atoms are formed. The electrons in the electron flow hit the mercury atom at a certain speed, causing the mercury atom to be excited and become an excited ion. This is called a step. The mercury in the excited state spontaneously falls back to the very short time. In the original state, ultraviolet light was released at the same time. Ultraviolet light could not be used for lighting. So we coated some fluorescent substances on the inner wall of the lamp. Under the bombardment of ultraviolet light, the fluorescent material can emit relatively natural light after being excited. Can be used for our lighting.
2. Commonly-used energy-saving lamps in the market include ordinary general-purpose lamps and tri-color lamps that are becoming mainstream, and they have the advantage of saving electricity compared with incandescent bulbs. The difference is that the color rendering of the ordinary lamp is low, and the three-color lamp shows a natural sunlight color, and is superior to the ordinary lamp in terms of color rendering and light efficiency. From the above we can know that mercury plays an intermediary role in energy-saving lamps, and no mercury energy-saving lamp will not emit light. The mercury in each lamp is very small.
3. According to the investigation, a tube with a diameter of 36 mm has a mercury content of 25 to 45 mg, and a tube with a diameter of 26 mm has a mercury content of 20 mg and a diameter of 20 mm. The 10 mm compact fluorescent lamp contains 10 mg of mercury. Mercury is a liquid at room temperature and is an easily flowing silver-white liquid metal. Mercury exists as a gas discharge medium in a fluorescent tube, which not only improves the light efficiency of the lamp, but also enriches the type of the light source. So current energy-saving lamp light sources contain mercury. Since the boiling point of mercury is very low, it can evaporate at room temperature. After the broken fluorescent tube breaks down, it immediately emits mercury vapor to the surroundings. The instantaneous concentration of mercury in the surrounding air can reach 10 to 20 mg per cubic meter. The maximum allowable concentration in the air is 0.01 milligrams per cubic meter. It can also flow with the air. Once the mercury entering the body exceeds a certain threshold, it will destroy the human central nervous system, causing great harm to the body. Mercury is difficult to remove after it enters the body. The workers in the factory of the author have not been exposed to mercury for more than a decade, but the mercury content in the body is still very high, and the mercury discharge needle is still being used at any time. So I have a kind of instinct for energy-saving lamps. In fact, mercury-containing lighting lamps generally have little pollution during use. The main cause of pollution is that electric light sources are discarded after being scrapped, and mercury is diffused into the air as a result of cracking, which harms human health and pollutes the environment. Because recovery is difficult and the value of recycling is too low, plus it has many other ills, the only solution is to eliminate it.